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By Al Dodson - Head Coach Conneticut Splash


The importance of Distance Per Stroke in competitive swimming is a generally accepted principle and has been well documented. Maglischo, Sweetenham, Goldsmith, Nelson, and many studies have addressed the benefits of stroke length to both speed and efficiency. Unfortunately, there has not been an equal amount of effort placed on how to teach Distance Improvement Per Stroke. This article will address some ways that have been successful in teaching distance improvement per stroke (D.I.P.S.) in swimming Freestyle. It will include stroke development drills and exercises used to teach stroke length, training drills designed specifically to reduce the number of strokes per length, ways to integrate distance per stroke technique and drills into training sessions, assessing and testing progress, and the utilization of these principles during competition. Teaching D.I.P.S. certainly should begin with Age Group swimmers, but it is just as important to Senior and Masters Swimmers. Steps should be taken to emphasise, reinforce, and improve distance per stroke for all ages and levels of swimmers.


Ideally, because a swimmer plants his/her hand and pulls his/her body past it, stroke length should remain constant and the only variable governing speed should be stroke rate, This is rarely achieved, but the more accomplished the swimmer, the closer he/she comes to the goal of equal distance per stroke over every distance or speed.


  • Increased distance per stroke increases speed

  • Increased distance per stroke helps in streamlining

  • Increased distance per stroke increases stroke efficiency

  • Increased distance per stroke leads to less energy consumption

  • Increased distance per stroke helps to build stroke rhythm

  • Increased distance per stroke helps to generate relaxed speed

  • Increased distance per stroke assists in and is essential to proper race pace

If velocity equals stroke rate times distance per stroke (V = R x DPS ), it only makes sense that if the distance per stroke increases or remains constant as the rate increases the result will be faster times


  • Solid stroke mechanics. Smaller swimmers with excellent technique often have better stroke length than taller swimmers with less efficient technique.
  • Development of the proper feel of the water
  • Constant concentration on keeping it long and decreasing the number of strokes per length.
  • The ability to relax in the water.
  • Swimmer confidence in the concept. At first swimmers may feel they are going slower
  • Constant assessment and periodic testing used to evaluate progress, act as a teaching tool and demonstrate the importance to swimmers.


The first step in teaching distance per stroke is the use of stroke development drills. There are drills that can be done on-the deck, or in- the-the water. The goal of using these drills should always be teaching the feel of proper stroke length. Motor memory is essential to proper technique and hence increased stroke length and efficiency. There are literally hundreds of drills that assist in stroke development, but the ones listed below are directly related to teaching D.I.P.S.

On-deck body positioning – lying on a bench on the stomach, the swimmer extends his/her arm as far forward as he/she can without touching his/her elbow to the bench. He/she then rolls onto his/her side and extends his/her arm as above. Repeat on other side. The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate the increased length of the reach when an up-on-your-side position is used.

On-deck pull into water – wet the pool deck enough so that swimmers will slide easily, and have the swimmer lie on the deck in a position so that one arm is fully extended in front of his/her shoulder over the side of the pool. Then ask him/her to complete a Freestyle pull – if done correctly, the swimmer’s hand will push against the side of the pool and pull him/her forward until he/she falls into the pool. This exercise helps teach the idea of planting a hand (or hands) and pulling the body beyond the hand (hands).

Side Kicking Drills

  • Face-to-Side – lying on the side with the ear rested on the water, the deeper arm fully extended, and the upper arm at the side with the hand on the thigh. Emphasis should be placed on maintaining the body at 90° to the water’s surface. Emphasise that the shoulder, hip, side of knees, and side of ankles should be pointed directly at the ceiling.  Swimmers should also, be coached to feel a stretch at the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle joint. This drill helps to teach the up-on-the-side position , body roll, and streamlining. All these components assist in increasing stroke length.
  • Face-toward-the-bottom-of the pool – this drill is done the same way as above except the face is pointed directly at the pool bottom. Again, this drill assists in teaching a streamline body position and the up-on-the side body position , but also helps to teach rotating the shoulders, trunk, and hips around the body’s central axis while maintaining a stationary head position. This rotation is essential to stroke length.

Kick & Roll Drill – this drill is initiated by assuming the same position as described in the side-kicking drills. The swimmer kicks six kicks on one side (this number can either be expanded or contracted) and then pulls with the extended arm and recovers with the upper arm and the swimmer rotates to the other side, kicks six kicks and repeats the drill. This can be done with the face to the side or toward the bottom of the pool. This drill helps to teach stroke balance, rotation and the up-on-the side position which are essential to stroke length.

Common Sculling Drills – these drills are used to teach the sculling actions that promote planting the hand and pulling the body past it.

  • Front Sculling Drills – these drills incorporate a pull buoy between the legs. The swimmer lies in the water with either the head up or with the face pointed at the bottom of the pool, and the arms extended in front of the shoulders with the hands angled slightly outward. Without moving the elbow, rotate the hand so the fingertips face directly towards the bottom of the pool, then move the hand and forearm backward until they reach the elbow which is held high, rotate the hand inward and forward until it reaches the starting point. Emphasise pressure against the hands during rotation. This drill can be done with one hand at a time, two hands at a time, and/or alternating hand. The purpose is to teach the initial sculling action of the stroke catch .
  • Middle Sculling Drills – these drills also incorporate a pull buoy between the legs. The swimmer lies on the water with either the head up or facing the bottom of the pool. The elbows are flexed and held high with the hands under the shoulders with the hands angled inward, fingertips pointed toward the bottom of the pool. Scull inward toward the ankles should be pointed directly at the body’s midline (think about sculling toward the opposite hip). Then rotate the hands and return them to the starting point. This also can be done with two hands at a time, one arm at a time, or alternating hands.
  • Rear Sculling Drills – using a pull buoy between the legs. Lie on the stomach with either the head up or with the face pointed at the bottom of the pool. The hands should be held slightly below chest level with fingertips facing the bottom of the pool and the hand rotated slightly outward. The hands are then sculled outward and upward past the hips. And then turned in and returned to the starting position. Again this drill can be completed with two arms simultaneously, one arm at a time or alternating arms. This phase of the stroke should be emphasised because it is the most critical phase of Freestyle and Butterfly.

One Arm Drills – one arm drills can be used to isolate different stroke phases such as rotation, long recovery, initial stroke setup or catch , different sweeps of the hands and smooth transition between stroke phases. They can also be used with a stroke count to measure stroke length.
2/2/4 Drills
– again, 2/2/4 drills can be used to isolate and emphasise different stroke phases, but also are an excellent transition between isolated parts and full stroke. The swimmer completes two strokes with one arm, then two strokes with the other arm, and then four full strokes.
OK Sign Drills
– in this drill the index finger and thumb form a circle with the remainder of the fingers extend forward so that an OK sign is formed. This hand position helps the swimmer feel the water flow throw the O during sculling, and or pulling motions. It can be used during any other drills to enhance the feel of the water.
X Mark Drills
– an X is marked on the fat pad of the palm of the hand. The swimmer is then told to feel the pressure of the water against the X during the sculling and pulling motions during the stroke. It has been particularly successful in teaching a smooth transition between stroke phases and with novice swimmers.
Over-Reach Catch-Up Drills one hand is held stationary in an extended position while the other arm completes an entire stroke cycle until it reaches beyond the extended, stationary arm. The extended arm then completes a stroke cycle while the other arm remains extended and stationary. It is important to emphasise reaching beyond the stationary arm if stroke length is to be improved.
Transition Drills
– one of the most important principles to swimming efficiency is a smooth transition from one stroke phase to another. Therefore, transition drills are an extremely important component. Transition drills should combine drills emphasising a smooth efficient transition from one phase to another. Some examples of some effective transition drills include…

  • Combined front and middle sculling drills
  • Combined middle and rear sculling drills
  • Combined double rear sculling drills and kick and roll drills
  • One arm drills emphasising the catch and in-sweep of the pull
  • One arm drills emphasising the in-sweep and rear sculling


  • Use only drills that utilise sound stroke principles
  • Avoid drills that may lead to other strokeflaws or possible causes of injury
  • Accentuate proper execution of drills – do not allow swimmers to just go through the motions – dills can build improper motor patterns as easily as proper technique.
  • Use various drills to build, to refine, or reinforce different stroke phases, but remember drills should be taught as another stroke, drill perfection is required to teach perfect technique.
  • Emphasise the feel of each stroke phase being taught or improved – teaching aids such as paddles, fins, and surgical tubing may help to improve sensory input.
  • Increase swimmer interest and focus by inventing new drills, or allowing swimmers to invent drills themselves – remember these drills need to utilise sound stroke principles that do not lead to stroke flaws or injuries.
  • Repeat and refine drills on an ongoing basis


In addition to utilising stroke development drills, training sets and drills designed to specifically reduce the number of strokes per length are essential to teaching distance improvement per stroke. The sets or drills listed below have proven to be successful.

Stroke Counts during Aerobic Swims – the first step is counting the number of strokes per length during easy aerobic swims. The best time to initially introduce this step is during warm- ups and warm-downs. Initially encourage maintaining the same number of strokes per each length. Later, challenge swimmers to decrease the number of strokes per length by 1, 2, or 3 strokes. These aerobic swims can be used to both teach and reinforce distance per stroke throughout the season.

3 x 25 strokes per length sets – This set is a series of short course 25’s (can be adapted to 50 meters, if only a long course pool is available) done in the following manner. Each set is a series of 3 x 25.

  • No.1 of each set is done relaxed – count the number of strokes for the 25
  • No.2 of each set is done at 200 pace – count the number of strokes for the 25 and maintain the same number of strokes for the 25 as No.1
  • No.3 of each set is an all out sprint – count the number of strokes for the 25 and maintain the same number of strokes as No.1 and No.2
  • Begin with take-off times of 1:30 to allow you to get individual counts and to provide technique suggestions after each repeat. These suggestions may include … “work on your streamline position” … “use a little more body roll to increase your stroke length” “reach more on your recovery to increase stroke length” … “don’t rush your stroke just because you are attempting to go faster” or “try to take one fewer stroke on this 25”
  • Later, use take-off times of :45 or 1:00
  • using them between speed sets to reinforce When using them as an individual technique set, use 3-4 sets of 3 x 25. When stroke length, use 1 or 2 sets
  • As swimmers begin to get the idea of the drill and keep the stroke count consistent,or approach equal stroke counts, introducing time or stroke rate goals, while maintaining the same stroke count. Examples of these expansions/refinements include..
  • Hit the following times and maintain the same stroke count No.1 = :16 No.2 = :14; No.3 = :12 – times should be specific to each individual … OR
  • Hit the following stroke rates for the 3 x 25 and keep the same stroke count – No.1 = 35 – 40 strokes/min., No.2 = 50 – 55 strokes/min., No.3 = 60+ strokes/minute
  • It is obviously easier to use the time refinement when working with groups, but when working with one individual, it is often more successful using stroke rates combined with stroke counts.

Modified Mini-Max or Descending Mini-Max Sets – the next step can incorporate a series of four descending 50’s utilising the concepts used in Bill Sweetenham’s Mini-Max sets. Swimmers utilise one or more sets of descending 50’s. Swimmers count the number of strokes per 50 and add them to their time. This should be done for each descending repeat. At first, the goal should be a descending total, later the swimmer should maintain the same stroke count but descend times and total, and last swimmers should descend times, stroke counts, and totals. In the beginning, the first repeat should be very easy and the series descended to an all out sprint. The contrast in descending assists in teaching the concept of increasing speed while maintaining or reducing stroke count. As swimmers become more proficient, the initial time of each set can be faster so there will be less contrast between the first and fourth swim of each set. Various refinements and variations can include time and rate goals as mentioned in the drill above can be used. Distances can also be varied. Using Mini-Max 25’s can be used with younger, less experienced swimmers and to provide more feedback. 100’s or 200’s can be used to teach maintaining constant stroke length over greater distances.

Mini-Max 50’s –  Each set should include …4-6x50 swims. Count your strokes on your first 50, accurately count the number of strokes taken during the 50, and add the number of strokes to the time. If you take 30 strokes and do a: 30, your total is 60. Attempt to reduce your total by going faster with the same number of strokes, doing the same time with fewer strokes, or go faster with fewer strokes. Continue for the entire set(s). Fewer strokes is good, faster is great, and faster with fewer strokes is best.

Build Swims – swims that incorporate building ¼’s of the total distance are also very effective in teaching distance per stroke. 25’s, building 6¼’s, while maintaining the fewest number of strokes per length allows for number of strokes per length allows for maximum coaching input. 50’s building 12½’s, 100’s building 25’s, etc., can all be very effective in teaching maintaining the same number of strokes or reducing the number of strokes while increasing stroke rate. Emphasis should be on relaxed , hard, very hard, and sprint by ¼ distances.

Games, Contests, & Races –  Some ideas include…

  • Set a number of strokes (such as 9 strokes) for each swimmer to take. Mark the distance that each swimmer covers with this number of strokes. Challenge them to go beyond the mark the next time. Contests can be used to see who goes the farthest or who improves the most, etc.
  • Handicap races or relays – time swimmers for a set distance and subtract the number of strokes they took. The swimmer with the highest total wins. An example is … if both swimmers do a :16for a 25, but one swimmer takes 15 strokes and one swimmer takes 16 strokes, the person who takes 15 strokes has a total of 1 and defeats the swimmer who takes 16 strokes and has a total of 0. This same concept can be used for relays where relay times and total strokes for the entire team are used to determine totals.

Coaches need to insist on swimmers completing training drills at the prescribed pace and rate. Swimming slowly with long strokes may be a starting point but it is essential that swimmers rehearse swimming at different paces with appropriate distance per stroke.


Teaching distance per stroke solely using stroke development and training drills will not translate successfully into meets without incorporating the concept into training sessions. Only after successful integration into training, will stroke length be able to be properly utilised during competition.

All swimming in warm-up and warm-down sets should incorporate stroke counts. You may wish to count every length, every other length, or one length for each quarter. Experience has shown that initially it is beneficial to count every length, but to later fade counting to one length per quarter. Swimmers often become bored counting every length, but stay more focused when counting one length per quarter.

An example would be to count the second length of each 100 during a 400 repeat. Integrating stroke development drills related to stroke length into training – this can be done in two different ways. One method incorporates technique drills into whole training repeats or sets. Examples include…

  • 6 x 100 on 1:30 – alternating drill and swim by 100
  • 4 x 4 x 50 on 1:00 – sets #1 & 3 = drill, sets 2 & 4 = swim

The other incorporates technique drills into each repeat.

  • 5 x 200 on 2:45 – take 2 strokes right arm Freestyle and then 2 strokes left arm Freestyle off each wall and swim the remainder of each length
  • 10 x 75 on 1:15 in the following manner – 25 drill; 25 build; 25 sprint

Training drills designed specifically to reduce the number of strokes per length should also be integrated into training sets. Two examples of this integration are

· 1 x 400 (level 1); 3 x 25 strokes per length drill (see above); 2 x 100 (level 3) – hold the same number of strokes for every length

· 4 x [4 x 50 on 2:00] Sets 1 and 3 = descending mini-max; Sets 2 and 4 = all out sprint – hold an equal stroke count

Stroke counts used while completing various training sets.
Swimmers should complete these

sets or repeats at moderate pace, using the fewest number of strokes possible. An example of this is…

  • 8 x 50 on 1:00 – odd numbers = stroke count; even numbers build 12½’s hard – work to hold the same number of strokes on all lengths

Swimmers and/or coaches should count strokes on random repeats. If swimmers count their own strokes they should adjust accordingly to the result. If the count is equal to their average count, they should atempt to take one less stroke on the next repeat. If the coach counts, he/she should provide feedback to the swimmer. This feedback may take the form of addressing the number of strokes or related to stroke tips that will aid in reducing the number of strokes taken.

Coaches should constantly provide input and reminders to swimmers during training sessions. Examples include… “You did a :28 on that one. Try hitting the same time taking one less s troke on each length.” “ This time, go one second faster without taking more strokes.” “On this one, go one second faster and take one stroke less.”


Constant assessment and periodic formal testing are extremely important components of teaching distance improvement per stroke. Fortunately, assessment and testing are relatively simple.

On-going assessment simply utilises counting strokes during different sets within training sessions. This counting should be done by both swimmers and coaches, and be used during sets that incorporate different intensity levels and speeds. It can be done at designated times, such as every third length or every fourth repeat. Random counting is a lso very effective. Coaches should periodically count a swimm er’s strokes throughout practice and provide input to the swimmer. This random counting helps to assess the effectiveness of teaching D.I.P.S. and helps to r edirect the swimmer’s f ocus back to distance pe r stroke .Ongoing assessment of stroke counts is one of the simplest forms of assessment in swimming; however, it may have the most benefit to performance.

Periodic Formal Testing is also very beneficial to eval uating distanc e i mprovement pe r stroke and the presentation of data collected during the process is extremely effective in demonstrating the importance of stroke length.

There are two ways to determine when tests should be administered. The first way would be to determine set time period for testing, suchas every four weeks. The other way is to time testing so it corresponds with training cycles, such as testing at the end of each macro-cycle. Both are beneficial.

Two tests hav e been proven effective. They are Wayne Goldsmith’s 10x100 Swim Test and the St roke Efficiency Test developed by David Pyne, Graeme Maw, and Wayne Goldsmith

Both of these tests have a two-fold benefit. First, the results reflect progress and need areas and a comparison of results from test session to test session.In addition, proper presentation of data is a very effective teaching tool.

The 10x100 Test utilises three 100’s at aerobic pace, thr ee 100’s at threshold pace, three 100’s at VO2Max pace, an extended rest and a 100 at maximum speed. The following information is collected … times, splits, heart rates, stroke counts, s troke rates, and lactate levels (if equipment is availabl e). An indepth protocol appears on the Web Site. In using this test to ealuate distance per stroke and to use it as a tool to teach distance im provement per stroke , the following comparisons are the most pertinent…

  • Time and stroke count/distance per stroke
  • Rate and stroke count/distance per stroke

For the initial test, these comparisons should be graphed and presented to swimmers w ith specific explanations and suggestions.For subsequent tests, the same comparisons should be presented, but graphic presentations should also compare test results to previous tests. Examples of collected data, suggested graphs and comments to swimmers follow.

The following data was collected while conducting a 10x100 Step Test relates to times, and st roke counts per 100 metre swim. The current ideal stroke count was determined by the fewest number of strokes taken during the test.

No. Time Stroke Count Ideal Stroke Count
1 01:21.5 68 67
2 01:22.1 69 67
3 01:21.3 67 67
4 01:13.5 69 67

5 01:12.8 70 67
6 01:12.7 71 67
7 01:07.5 73 67
8 01:07.8 75 67
9 01:06.8 74 67
10 01:01.0 76 67

The data below is taken from the same 10x100 Step Test and relates to stroke rate, stroke count and ideal stroke count. Again, the current ideal stroke count was determined by the fewest strokes taken on a given 100.

No. Stroke Rate Stroke Count Ideal Stroke Count
1 37.5 68 67
2 37.0 69 67
3 38 67 67
4 45.0 69 67
5 46.5 70 67
6 46.5 71 67
7 49.5 73 67
8 51.0 75 67

9 50.5 74 67

10 58.0 76 67

The following graph compares Stroke rate stroke count and ideal stroke count from the 10x100 Step Test

When discussing the results of the initial test related to times and stroke count with the swimmer, attention should be focused upon the elevated stroke count as the time decreased. It is not unusual for this to happen during the first test. However, an emphasis should be placed upon closing the gap between the stroke count and the ideal stroke count in the actual future. The coach should discuss ways of achieving this during training sessions.

When discussing the results of the initial test related to stroke rate and stroke count with the swimmer, attention should also be focussed on the increased number of strokes, hence the shorter the distance per stroke as the rate increased. The importance of maintaining stroke length, while stroke rate increases, must be emphasised. Set a goal for the next test to maintain the current ideal stroke count throughout the test but increase the stroke rate equal to the current rate or at a higher rate for each series of swims.

Pyne’s Maw’s, and Goldsmith’s Stroke Efficiency Test is equally as important in evaluating and t eaching distance improvement per stroke The test consists of 7x50-metre swims on a two-minute cycle. The slowest swim should be at 12 seconds over the predicted best time. Each of the other times should descend by two seconds. Time, stroke rate, stroke count, and distance per stroke* should be recorded. An in depth protocol appears on the Web Site.

Note: it may be more feasible during a training session to record only the stroke count instead of distance per stroke .What you may lose in accuracy is far out-weighed by testing efficiency. If possible it is best to record both stroke count and distance per stroke.

In using this test to evaluate distance per stroke and to use it as a teaching tool, the following comparisons are the most important…

· Times and stroke count/distance per stroke

· Stroke rates and stroke count/distance per stroke.

As in the 10x100 Test, these comparisons should be graphed and presented to swimmers. For the initial test, these comparisons should be presented to swimmers with specific explanations and suggestions. For subsequent tests, the same comparisons should be presented, but graphic presentations should also compare test results with those of previous tests. Examples and suggested graphs and comments to swimmers follow. The following graph illustrates the comparison of times, stroke rates, stroke count, and ideal stroke count based upon the results of the 7x50 Stroke Efficiency (Stroke Mechanics) Test.

When discussing the results with the swimmer, the coach should mention that as the time decreases and the rate increases, the stroke count should remain the same. Goals for the next test should address decreasing the gap between the stroke count and the ideal stroke count and what should be done in training sessions to reach that goal.

The following table and graph illustrate a comparison of stroke rates and distance per stroke…

No. Stroke Rate Distance Per Stroke
1 33.5 2.13

2 34 2.0 7

3 37.5 1.94

4 40.6 1,87
5 46.5 1.79

6 52.5 1.74

7 58 1.68

When discussing the comparison of stroke rate and distance per stroke with the swimmer it is important to mention that as the stroke rate increase the distance per stroke should remain the same.

The following graph is a comparison of stroke rates and distance per stroke be tween Test 1 and Test 2.

When discussing the results with the swimmer, it is important to mention that although there was progress, the goal should be maintaining an equal distance per stroke for all stroke rates. The input should not stop there, but should include strategies in training sessions and competition to reach that goal. Although the use of these two tests may appear to be repetitive, they help to reinforce the same concept over two different distances and help to show where the point of emphasis breaks down at a given distance, time, or stroke rate. Remember, ideally, distance per stroke should remain constant for every distance and speed, and only the rate and time should vary.


The final step is using stroke length during competition. Utilisation of distance per stroke concepts may include concentration points such as…

Swimmer Self-Correction

  • If, during competition, the swimmer’s feel indicates that his/her stroke is too short, he/she should make adjustments related to what has been learned in stroke development and training drills.
  • If when the swimmer counts the number of strokes per length, he/she is taking too many strokes, he/she should also make adjustments. In this area stretching out the stroke is usually appropriate, but it also may trigger concentration upon another technique correction

Counting by the Swimmer

Often times, if a swimmer’s most common flaw in competition is shortening his/her stroke, he/she should count the number of strokes of particular lengths. If the race involves pace where building or increased stroke rate is involved, the best place to count strokes is immediately following the increase in pace or rate.

  • An example might be in a 400-metre swim that utilises building 100’s, in a long course pool, a swimmer should count the third, fifth and seventh lengths
  • Adjustments should be made during the race

Counting by an assistant coach or another swimmer – the primary coach should concern himself/herself with stroke mechanics and race strategy, but an assistant or another swimmer should count strokes per length, so feedback can be provided at the conclusion of the race. Stroke counts and distance per stroke

comments should be discussed with the swimmer after the race and recorded for future use


Each of the areas mentioned above are equal in importance and require coaching input. Isolated drills allow for the most input. Feedback during the integration into training sets should be geared to teaching the feeling of correct stroke length, mechanics or pace and teaching swimmers self-coaching techniques .

During competition, swimmers need to be self-correcting; however, coaching input should precede and follow each race. The need to emphasise stroke length never diminishes and should not be stagnant. When stroke length is successfully learned, integrated into training, and utilised in competition, it can be expanded, refined, or changed, but never eliminated. Although this article addresses Freestyle, distance per stroke is also extremely important to the other three competitive strokes. In fact, it may even be more important to the short axis strokes (Butterfly and Breaststroke). The same principles can be readily adapted to Backstroke, Breaststroke and Butterfly. Distance per stroke is so important that it should be the primary consideration in stroke development technique, precision drills, integration into training, and utilization during competition despite the level of the athlete.

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